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is a way to use geometric relationships between rock bodies to determine the sequence of geologic events in an area.
The reason was that the fossils of clams, snails, and other marine animals were found in tall mountains, miles from any ocean. Some religious writers believed that the shells were washed up during the Biblical flood.
In 1666, a young doctor named Nicholas Steno was invited to dissect the head of an enormous great white shark that had been caught by local fisherman near Florence, Italy.
Steno was struck by the resemblance of the shark's teeth to fossils, known as "tongue stones", recovered from inland mountains and hills (Figure 11.9).
This idea is known as Plutonism, in reference to the God of the deep underworld.
Hutton viewed tilted strata as having been initially deposited horizontally, and then were subsequently deformed (tilted and folded) by the forces of Earth's internal heat engine.